This usually involves collecting urine samples to test for drugs such as marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, phencyclidine PCPand opioids both heroin and prescription pain relievers. In random testing, students are selected regardless of their drug use history and may include students required to do a drug test as a condition of participation in an extracurricular activity. Schools adopt random student drug testing to decrease drug misuse and illicit drug use among students. First, they hope random testing will serve as a deterrent and give students a reason to resist peer pressure to take drugs.
Posted on December 12, by Scott Alexander Aquinas famously said: For example, take medical research. Suppose a certain drug is weakly effective against a certain disease.
After a few years, a bunch of different research groups have gotten their hands on it and done all sorts of different studies. But there will also be random noise caused by inevitable variation and by some of the experiments being better quality than others.
In the end, we might expect something looking kind of like a bell curve. We see that the peak of the curve is somewhere to the right of neutral — ie weakly effective — and that there are about 15 studies that find this correct result.
But there are also about 5 studies that find that the drug is very good, and 5 studies missing the sign entirely and finding that the drug is actively bad.
This is before we get into fraud or statistical malpractice. As we increase experimental rigor, the bell curve might get squashed horizontally, but there will still be a bell curve. But maybe the drug is more effective in bipolar i than in bipolar ii Depakote, for example Or maybe the drug is very effective against bipolar mania, but much less effective against bipolar depression Depakote again.
And the latest study shows that their drug is great! Or they could add all of those studies about slightly different things. Depakote is ineffective at treating bipolar depression. Depakote is ineffective at maintenance bipolar therapy.
Depakote is ineffective at bipolar ii. I think medical science is still pretty healthy, and that the consensus of doctors and researchers is more-or-less right on most controversial medical issues. Like, take the minimum wage question please.
We all know about the Krueger and Card study in New Jersey that found no evidence that high minimum wages hurt the economy. We probably also know the counterclaims that it was completely debunked as despicable dishonest statistical malpractice. Maybe some of us know Card and Krueger wrote a pretty convincing rebuttal of those claims.
Or that a bunch of large and methodologically advanced studies have come out since then, some finding no effect like Dubeothers finding strong effects like Rubinstein and Wither. These are just examples; there are at least dozens and probably hundreds of studies on both sides.
But we can solve this with meta-analyses and systemtic reviews, right? Depends which one you want. Do you go with this meta-analysis of fourteen studies that shows that any presumed negative effect of high minimum wages is likely publication bias? With this meta-analysis of sixty-four studies that finds the same thing and discovers no effect of minimum wage after correcting for the problem?
Or how about this meta-analysis of fifty-five countries that does find effects in most of them? Maybe you prefer this systematic review of a hundred or so studies that finds strong and consistent effects?
Can we trust news sources, think tanks, econblogs, and other institutions to sum up the state of the evidence? The weight of the evidence is that such impacts are small to none.
They seem like experts. What do they think? Well, five hundred economists signed a letter to policy makers saying that the science of economics shows increasing the minimum wage would be a bad idea. That sounds like a promising consensus…. Only 6 percent feel that minimum wage hikes are an efficient way to alleviate poverty.
But unless you look very very hard, you will never know that.Punishment and Prejudice: Judging Drug-Using Pregnant Women Lynn M. Paltrow Throughout the late 's and still today, "crack moms" and "crack babies" are the subject of vigorous public debate.
GLOBAL KLEPTOCRACY Self-serving leaders throughout the world increasingly assume power with the goal of becoming rich at the expense of the majority of their population, and of the commonweal.
The United Nations' World Drugs Report should surprise readers in more ways than one. Most notably for the drug policy reform movement, UNODC head Antonia Maria Costa's preface actually acknowledges anti-prohibitionist sentiments; provides a generally positive analysis of Portugal's decriminalization efforts; and, rather than approaching drug policy from a strictly punitive viewpoint.
The medical profession should play a central role in evaluating the evidence related to drugs, devices, and procedures for the detection, management, and prevention of disease. When properly applied, expert analysis of available data on the benefits and risks of these therapies and procedures can.
Ethics of Research Involving Mandatory Drug Testing of High School Athletes in Oregon schools were subject to random drug testing once during the school year but not necessarily during Ethics of Research Involving Mandatory Drug Testing.
Business Tech Science The proposal of mandatory drug testing in the workplace takes matters to a new level and raises obvious concerns about .