This period saw the transition from a relatively rigid system of legal proofs which predetermined when there was sufficient evidence for a condemnation, to a system based on the free evaluation of the evidence by either professional judges or lay jurors. It is the central contention of this article that the reform of the criminal law of evidence can, to an important extent, be explained by two larger underlying ideological changes. These new ideas derived from a change in the epistemological and the political-constitutional discourses between the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries. Papen, a prominent monarchist and devout catholic, who in November was nominated by Hitler Commissioner for the strictly religious catholic Saar Basin, followed his mission there to build a bridge between altar and crown, i.
Disasters[ edit ] Natural: The Valdivia earthquakealso known as the Great Chilean earthquake, is to date the most powerful earthquake ever recorded, rating 9. The main tsunami raced across the Pacific Ocean and devastated Hilo, Hawaii. Gulf Coast, especially in the state of Louisiana.
Fires had erupted on the river many times, including 22 Junewhen a river fire captured the attention of Time magazine, which described the Cuyahoga as the river that "oozes rather than flows" and in which a person "does not drown but decays.
Gulf Coast at Category 5 Status. On 15 FebruarySabena Flight crashed on its way to Brussels, Belgium, killing all 72 passengers on board and 1 person on the ground. Among those The post national constellation political essays were all 18 members of the US figure skating team, on their way to the World Championships.
Since the wreckage of the aircraft is lost to this day, the cause of the crash remains a mystery. All people on board perished. All aboard died.
A total of people died in the crash. Social and political movements[ edit ] Counterculture and social revolution[ edit ] Flower Power Bus In the second half of the decade, young people began to revolt against the conservative norms of the time, as well as remove themselves from mainstream liberalism, in particular the high level of materialism which was so common during the era.
This created a "counterculture" that sparked a social revolution throughout much of the Western world. It began in the United States as a reaction against the conservatism and social conformity of the s, and the U.
The youth involved in the popular social aspects of the movement became known as hippies. These groups created a movement toward liberation in society, including the sexual revolutionquestioning authority and government, and demanding more freedoms and rights for women and minorities.
The Underground Pressa widespread, eclectic collection of newspapers served as a unifying medium for the counterculture.
The movement was also marked by the first widespread, socially accepted drug use including LSD and marijuana and psychedelic music.
Opposition to United States involvement in the Vietnam War A female demonstrator offers a flower to military police on guard at the Pentagon during an anti-Vietnam War protest. As late as the end offew Americans protested the American involvement in Vietnam, but as the war dragged on and the body count continued to climb, civil unrest escalated.
Students became a powerful and disruptive force and university campuses sparked a national debate over the war. As the movement's ideals spread beyond college campuses, doubts about the war also began to appear within the administration itself. A mass movement began rising in opposition to the Vietnam Warending in the massive Moratorium protests inas well as the movement of resistance to conscription "the Draft" for the war.
Other terms heard in the United States included " the Draft ", " draft dodger ", " conscientious objector ", and " Vietnam vet ". Voter age-limits were challenged by the phrase: Civil rights movement Leaders of the civil rights movement in front of the statue of Abraham Lincoln, 28 August Beginning in the mids and continuing into the late s, African-Americans in the United States aimed at outlawing racial discrimination against black Americans and voting rights to them.
This article covers the phase of the movement between andparticularly in the South. The emergence of the Black Power movementwhich lasted roughly from toenlarged the aims of the civil rights movement to include racial dignity, economic and political self-sufficiencyand anti-imperialism.
The movement was characterized by major campaigns of civil resistance. Between andacts of civil disobedience and nonviolent protest produced crisis situations between activists and government authorities.
Federal, state, and local governments, businesses, and communities often had to respond immediately to these situations that highlighted the inequities faced by African Americans. Noted legislative achievements during this phase of the civil rights movement were passage of Civil Rights Act of that banned discrimination based on "race, color, religion, or national origin" in employment practices and public accommodations; the Voting Rights Act ofthat restored and protected voting rights; the Immigration and Nationality Services Act ofthat dramatically opened entry to the U.
Hispanic and Chicano movement[ edit ] Another large ethnic minority group, the Mexican-Americansare among other Hispanics in the U.
The largest Mexican-American populations was in the Southwestern United Statessuch as California with over 1 million Chicanos in Los Angeles alone, and Texas where Jim Crow laws included Mexican-Americans as "non-white" in some instances to be legally segregated.
Socially, the Chicano Movement addressed what it perceived to be negative ethnic stereotypes of Mexicans in mass media and the American consciousness. It did so through the creation of works of literary and visual art that validated Mexican-American ethnicity and culture.
Chicanos fought to end social stigmas such as the usage of the Spanish language and advocated official bilingualism in federal and state governments. The Chicano Movement also addressed discrimination in public and private institutions.
Early in the twentieth century, Mexican Americans formed organizations to protect themselves from discrimination.
One of those organizations, the League of United Latin American Citizenswas formed in and remains active today.Jürgen Habermas is a German sociologist and philosopher in the tradition of critical theory and American pragmatism. He is perhaps best known for his work on the concept of the public sphere, the topic of his first book entitled The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere/5.
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A funeral mass for Lawrence Auster is scheduled for 1 p.m. Tuesday, April 2 at Church of St. Michael the Archangel, located at Holy Cross Catholic Church, E. Mount Airy Avenue, Philadelphia PA..
Visitation at the church; noon to 1 p.m. Burial to follow. Those unfamiliar with Habermas's theoretical work will find in thisvolume a lucid and engaging introduction to one of the world's mostinfluential thinkers. For readers familiar with Habermas'swritings, The Postnational Constellation provides an invaluableapplication of his social and political theories to currentpolitical realities.
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