The domestication of the dog and its purpose

Which One Is Yours? Some canines are considered to be the most dangerous dogs by people — particularly by the neighbors of such dog owners. But only their owners know that even these dogs have a softer side to them.

The domestication of the dog and its purpose

The domestication of the dog and its purpose

Origin and history of dogs Ancestry Paleontologists and archaeologists have determined that about 60 million years ago a small mammal, rather like a The domestication of the dog and its purposelived in the environs of what are now parts of Asia.

It is called Miacisthe genus that became the ancestor of the animals known today as canids: Miacis did not leave direct descendants, but doglike canids evolved from it. By about 30 to 40 million years ago Miacis had evolved into the first true dog—namely, Cynodictis.

This was a medium-size animal, longer than it was tall, with a long tail and a fairly brushy coat. Over the millennia Cynodictis gave rise to two branches, one in Africa and the other in Eurasia.

The Eurasian branch was called Tomarctus and is the progenitor of wolves, dogs, and foxes. The timing and location of dog domestication is less clear and has been a matter of significant debate, but there is strong genetic evidence that the first domestication events occurred somewhere in Central Asia before 15, years ago.

Some genetic studies have suggested that wolves were domesticated 16, years ago to serve as livestock in China. Other genetic studies, however, have suggested that dog domestication began as early as 18,—32, years ago in Europe or that early dogs dating from about 12, to 14, years ago came from a small strain of gray wolf that inhabited what is now India.

Thereafter this wolf—known as Canis lupus pallipes—was widely distributed throughout EuropeAsiaand North America. However, one genetic study that compared the DNA of dogs and wolves inhabiting areas thought to have been centres of dog domestication suggests that dogs and modern wolves belong to separate lineages that share a common ancestor.

It is also possible that some of the dogs of today descended not from the wolf but rather from the jackal. These dogs, found in Africamight have given rise to some of the present native African breeds.

A genetic study examining the migration of dogs to the Americas revealed evidence that dogs did not accompany the first humans to the New World more than 15, years ago; the study suggested that dogs came to the Americas only 10, years ago. No matter what their origins, all canids have certain common characteristics.

They are mammals that bear live young. The females have mammary glands, and they suckle their offspring.

The early breeds had erect ears and pointed or wedge-shaped muzzles, similar to the northern breeds common today. Most of the carnivores have similar dental structures, which is one way paleontologists have been able to identify them. Canids walk on their toes, in contrast to an animal like the bear, which is flat-footed and walks on its heels.

Dogs, like most mammals, have body hair and are homeothermic—that is to say, they have an internal thermostat that permits them to maintain their body temperature at a constant level despite the outside temperature.

Fossil remains suggest that five distinct types of dogs existed by the beginning of the Bronze Age about bce. They were the mastiffs, wolf-type dogs, sight hounds such as the Saluki or greyhoundpointing dogs, and herding dogs. Domestication It is likely that wild canids were scavengers near tribal campsites at the same time that ancient humans discovered a hunting partner in the animals that ventured close by.

In ancient Egyptdogs were thought to possess godlike characteristics. They were pampered by their own servants, outfitted with jeweled collars, and fed the choicest diet. Only royalty was permitted to own purebred dogs, and upon the death of a ruler his favourite dog was often interred with him to protect him from harm in the afterlife.

Illustrations of dogs dating from the Bronze Age have been found on walls, tombs, and scrolls throughout Europe, the Middle Eastand North America. Often the dogs are depicted hunting game with their human counterparts. Statues of dogs guard the entrances to burial crypts.

In many cases these dogs clearly resemble modern canines. Such relics are indelible testimony to the importance that humans have given to the dog throughout the ages. Origin of breeds Once it became evident that dogs were faster and stronger and could see and hear better than humans, those specimens exhibiting these qualities were interbred to enhance such attributes.

Fleet-footed sight hounds were revered by noblemen in the Middle East, while in Europe powerful dogs such as the mastiff were developed to protect home and traveler from harm.

Chihuahua, long-coat left and smooth-coat right. Herding and guarding dogs were important to farmers for protecting their flocks. At the same time, small breeds became desirable as playthings and companions for noble families. The Pekingese in China and fragile breeds such as the Chihuahua were bred to be lapdogs.The gray wolf is thought to be ancestral to the domestic dog, however its relationship to C.

variabilis, and the genetic contribution of C. variabilis to the dog, is the subject of debate. Dangerous Dogs can be threatening - Find out what you absolutely have to know.

This is a list of the top ten most dangerous dogs with essential information you. Dog: Dog, domestic mammal of the family Canidae (order Carnivora).

It is a subspecies of the gray wolf and is related to foxes and jackals.

From wild animals to domestic pets, an evolutionary view of domestication | PNAS

The dog is one of the two most ubiquitous and most popular domestic animals in the world (the cat is the other). It has lived with humans for more than 12, years. Dog behavior is the internally coordinated responses (actions or inactions) of the domestic dog (individuals or groups) to internal and/or external stimuli.

As the oldest domesticated species, with estimates ranging from 9,–30, years BCE, the minds of dogs inevitably have been shaped by millennia of contact with humans. Today humans have bred hundreds of different domestic dog breeds—some of which could never survive in the wild.

Despite their many shapes and sizes all domestic . In the 19th century we saw a surge in the number of dog breeds along with the advent of dog shows.

The domestication of the dog and its purpose

Now that we have learned about the domestication of dogs, we'll find out how cats clawed their way into our hearts and homes.

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