Statistics and Probability Problems with Solutions sample 3 More Problems on probability and statistics are presented. The answers to these problems are at the bottom of the page.

Decision tree for selecting a suitable spatial prediction model. Many geo statisticians believe that there is only one Best Linear Unbiased Prediction model for spatial data e. Likewise, if the target variable shows no correlation with the auxiliary predictors, the regression-kriging model reduces to ordinary kriging model because the deterministic part equals the global mean value.

Hence, pure kriging and pure regression should be considered as only special cases of regression-kriging see figure.

This confuses the users and distracts them from using the right technique for their mapping projects. In fact, both universal kriging, kriging with external drift, and regression-kriging are basically the same technique.

Matheron originally termed the technique Le krigeage universel, however, the technique was intended as a generalized case of kriging where the trend is modelled as a function of coordinates. Thus, many authors reserve the term universal kriging UK for the case when only the coordinates are used as predictors.

If the deterministic part of variation drift is defined externally as a linear function of some auxiliary variables, rather than the coordinates, the term kriging with external drift KED is preferred according to Hengl"About regression-kriging: From equations to case studies".

In the case of UK or KED, the predictions are made as with kriging, with the difference that the covariance matrix of residuals is extended with the auxiliary predictors.

However, the drift and residuals can also be estimated separately and then summed. This procedure was suggested by Ahmed et al.Such evidence is not only difficult to refute, it's often accepted as the final word in what's true or not true.

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Statistics are based on studies: a search for possible connections between disparate facts that nonetheless have a connection. Problems ensue when people forget about what is allowed under each system and try making statements about the probability of something being true while conducting a frequentist analysis.

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