Early Items From H.
Early Items From H. By a Citizen of the United States. The earth is nearly eight thousand miles in diameter, and the deepest excavations that have been made in it by human art, do not extend to half a mile below its surface.
We are, therefore, utterly ignorant Patron saint of butterflies essay the nature and composition of the interior of this immense mass, and must, perhaps, for ever remain so.
The subject is of too much interest, however, not to have excited the particular attention of philosophers, and, in the absence of facts, many of them have not Patron saint of butterflies essay to resort to speculation and conjecture.
Burnet, the earliest cosmogonist whose system is worthy of norice, supposed that the earth was originally a fluid, chaotic mass, composed of various substances differing in form and density.
In the course of time, the heaviest portions subsided, and formed about the centre a dense and solid nucleus.
The waters took their station around this body; on their surface floated an ocean of oil and unctuous matters; and the whole was surrounded by the air and other ethereal fluids. This atmosphere was at first full of impurities, being charged with particles of the earth with which it had been previously blended.
By degrees, however, it purified itself, by depositing these particles upon the stratum of oil; and there was formed a thick and solid crust of mould, which was the firts habitable part of the globe. After many centuries, this crust, having been gradually dried by the heat of the sun, cracked and split asunder, so as to fall into the abyss of waters beneath it; and this great event was the universal deluge.
Our present earth is composed of the remains of the first; our continents and islands being portions of the primordial crust, from which the waters have retired.
Woodward, who immediately followed Burnet in this career of speculation, supposed that the bodies which compose the earth, were all dissolved or suspended in teh waters of the general deluge; and that on the gradual retiring of the waters, these substances subsided, successively, in the order of their specific gravities; so that the earth is now formed of distinct strata, arranged in concentric layers, "like the coats of an onion.
At the period of the creation described by Moses, the earth was placed in its present orbit, which is nearly circular, and was in consequence subjected to a great variety of important changes.
The heavier parts of the chaotic atmosphere, by which the comet was surrounded, fell gradually upon the nucleus, and formed a great liquid abyss, on which the crust of the earth was finally deposited, and now floats. This crust, and the subterraneous fluid, are each fifty or one hundred miles in thickness; and within them lies the solid nucleus or original comet, which contains another rarer fluid, and a central loadstone.
Thus, says this philospher: It will be observed, that all these theories agree in supposing the earth to be composed of successive shells, placed one within the other. The great astronomer, Hally, also adopted the hypothesis of a sphere revolving within the earth, in order to account for the variation of the magnetic needle, and in this opinion he was followed by Euler; so that the theory of "concentric spheres," has been one of the oldest and most prevalent in geology.
The theory of the celebrated Buffon is very generally known. He supposed that the earth was struck off from the sun by a comet, and was, therefore, at first, no more than an irregular mass of melted and inflamed matter.
This mass, by the mutual attraction of its parts, assumed a globular figure, which its rotary motion, caused by the obliquity of the first impulse, changed into a spheroid.
The interior of the globe is, according to this theory, a vitrified mass, which the author maintains to be homogeneous, and not, as is generally thought, dispoded in layers following the order of density.
These are the most remarkable theories that have been presented, on the subject of the structure of the earth. It is proper to remark, that they were the productions of men of genius and learning; that they were maintained by arguments full of plausibility, and, even now, difficult of refutation; and that they attracted great attention, and made many proselytes.
Yet, such is the just destiny reserved fore all extravagent and romantic speculations, that, at the present day, they have not a single advocate or believer, and are mentioned only to be condemned.
But these philosophic fancies have all been far outdone by the theory of our countryman captain Symmes, who, for the last nine or ten years, has been using every exertion to convince the world of its past errors, and to inculcate his own new and true theory.
The newspapers have teemed with essays; circulars have been addressed to all the learned societies of Europe and America; addresses and petitions have been presented to our national and state legislatures; certificates of conviction and "ashesion" have been procured from men in high literary and political stations; the master and his disciples have traversed the whole country, from south to north, and from west to east, so that all men, in all places, might be enlightened in the truth; and, finally, the whole subject has been reduced to a regular body of doctrine, in the work now under review, written by "one of the believers in the theory.
It is presented as follows, in his second chapter: The author here indulges himself in a dream respecting these infintesimal spherules, but after some time, returns to the more substantial part of the theory. Each of these spheres are widely open at their poles.Responses to Book Review: Legal Systems Very Different From Ours.
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So much writing in support of bullfighting is suffocating in its exclusion of the.