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Duplication of this publication or parts thereof is permitted only under the provisions of the German Copyright Law of September 9,in its current version, and permission for use must always be obtained from Physica-Verlag.
Violations are liable for prosecution under the German Copyright Law. Camera ready by the author Cover-design: Erich Kirchner, Heidelberg Production: The major risk affecting companies in the EU ETS essentially come from possible movements in price and the availability of a sufficient number of allowances at a specific point in time.
In order to manage these risks efficiently and profitably appropriate physical and financial instruments are expected to enter the market soon. Spot transactions, Forwards and Swaps, Options, Repos as well as Hybrid or Basket products are offered or are under development.
CO2 is bridging the gap between gas, power and commodity prices worldwide. Bourses and trading platforms are using the opportunities to catch a share of the rapidly growing carbon market.
A future challenge will be the integration of other regional activities or country trading schemes, for example in Asia or North-America, into the on-going European carbon market. Strengthen liquidity is one of the key factors for optimizing the market framework. Analysing the economic background and market drivers is a huge challenge for academic research and a real demand for the business practice.
It is part of the sponsorship on the occasion of the year anniversary of the University Halle-Wittenberg. We would like to express our gratitude for the financial and administrative support, particularly to Dr.
In the discourse on sustainable development, interdisciplinary cooperation is often and appropriately demanded from both economists and management scholars.
Quite to the contrary and remarkably rare, intradisciplinary cooperation between the neighbouring disciplines economics and management science is demanded and undertaken.
Bridging both disciplines by discussing problems and questions at their interface is therefore an additional aim of the book. We are pleased to have brought together young and established scholars from both disciplines and from different countries to discuss with us the topic of emissions trading.
We had 30 submissions from research institutions of eleven countries. For the book the contributions were revised and updated.
In its early phase emissions trading was often criticised as a kind of letter of indulgence. Founded as a University inresettled and united with the Univer- VIII Preface and acknowledgements sity Halle in and re-established as a foundation inthe old buildings of the Leucorea were completely renovated, i.
We would like to thank all those individuals who contributed to this book for sharing their work and ideas with us, as we learned a great deal from them. We would like to thank Professor Dr. Hans-Ulrich Zabel for his constant support. We would like to thank Paul Ronning, who did a great job in improving the English texts for the non-native speakers, and Katharina Wetzel-Vandai, Gabriele Keidel and Ilse Wittig from Springer Publishers for their great patience and helpfulness at all times.
And finally, we would like to give special thanks to Kay Fiedler who provided, with his meticulous sense of commitment, the layout for the book. V Preface and acknowledgements SO2 emissions from through Denny Ellerman, Florence Dubroeucq 1 Introduction Figure 1 illustrates this development.
Tradable emission permits are, in this regard, a relatively new and innovative instrument in the world of environmental policies. Its special appeal can be attributed, however, not only to the fact that environmental protection is made possible at minimal cost to national economies. The special appeal of tradable emission permits can also be attributed to the fact that this instrument can play a strategic role for the implementation of sustainable environmental policies.
Tradable environmental permits are namely the only! This is an advantage that is often overlooked, and not only by economists.
If the politics to protect the environment is successful in its attempt to define the stock of natural assets, and on this basis is able to purport quantity targets for allowable exploitation of said natural assets, then tradable permits are, in this fashion, ideally suited to both instrumental implementation of these performance targets and assured preservation of natural stocks.
Introspection is most certainly required in this context, since the effectiveness of this instrument is inherently linked to further prerequisites. To avoid local and regional distribution effects hot spots the local concentration of emissions, which can occur as a consequence of trading permits must be ecologically irrelevant.
Ecologists as opposed to environmental activists!
Furthermore, the homogeneity of the traded goods is necessary. Again, this is the case, per se, with green house gases.
But there are serious problems with other natural resources for which permit trading schemes might be implemented, for example water, land or habitats.
These goods differ in quality, and therefore are not homogeneous goods per se. Moreover, methodological problems concerning the monetary valuation of the social and ecological consequences of economic activities can hardly be denied.Die Deutsche Post AG mit Sitz in der Bundesstadt Bonn ist ein deutsches Logistik-und alphabetnyc.com Unternehmen entstand durch Privatisierung der früheren Behörde Deutsche Bundespost und ist seit Bestandteil des deutschen Leitindexes DAX an der Frankfurter alphabetnyc.com Wirkung vom September zog .
So the first thing you need is some teeth to the tiger and somebody in charge and a business plan that really has a plan of action. The Department of Commerce that we have, which is our biggest agency, and I .
A major economic shift unremarked by the West, while multiple production dimensions come on line. News and analysis on Catalonia's struggle for self-determination from Green Left Weekly's European bureau. In , Inc. looked at how The Body Shop was able to mix business with a devotion to social causes, inspiring employees and customers alike.
According to the legal definition of section (1) sentence 2 of the BetrVG, a social plan is an agreement between the works council and the employer on the compensation or the mitigating of the economic disadvantages that arise as a result of planned changes in the company.