This stage lasts from birth to two years old. During this stage, behaviors lack a sense of thought and logic. Behaviors gradually move from acting upon inherited reflexes to interacting with the environment with a goal in mind and being able to represent the external world at the end. The sensorimotor stage has been broken down into six sub stages that explain the gradual development of infants from birth to age 2.
Return to Contents "The last two decades of infancy research have seen dramatic changes in the way developmental psychologists characterize the earliest stages of cognitive development. It includes the acquisition and consolidation of knowledge.
Cognitive development is a field of study in neuroscience and psychology focusing on a child's development in terms of information processing, conceptual resources, perceptual skill, language learning, and other aspects of the developed adult brain and cognitive psychology. Qualitative differences between how a child processes its waking experience and how an adult processes his/her waking . cognitive development the development of intelligence, conscious thought, and problem-solving ability that begins in infancy. community health development in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as facilitating members of a community to identify the community's health concerns, mobilize resources, and implement solutions. The information contained on this Web site should not be used as a substitute for the medical care and advice of your pediatrician. There may be variations in treatment that your pediatrician may recommend based on individual facts and circumstances.
Infants draw on social-emotional, language, motor, and perceptual experiences and abilities for cognitive development. They are attuned to relationships between features of objects, actions, and the physical environment.
But they are particularly attuned to people. Parents, family members, friends, teachers, and caregivers play a vital role in supporting the cognitive development of infants by providing the healthy interpersonal or social-emotional context in which cognitive development unfolds.
Caring, responsive adults provide the base from which infants can fully engage in behaviors and interactions that promote learning. Such adults also serve as a prime source of imitation.
There is substantial variation in how intelligence is defined Cognitive development different cultures Sternberg and Grigorenko As a result, different aspects of cognitive functioning or cognitive performance may be more highly valued in some cultural contexts than in others. Aspects of intelligence that have to do with social competence appear to be seen as more important than speed in some non-Western cultural contexts Sternberg and Grigorenko Research has identified a broad range of cognitive competencies and described the remarkable progression of cognitive development during the early childhood years.
Experts in the field describe infants as active, motivated, and engaged learners who possess an impressive range of cognitive competencies National Research Council and Institute of Medicine and learn through exploration Whitehurst and Lonigan Infants demonstrate natural curiosity.
They have a strong drive to learn and act accordingly.
Cause-and-Effect Everyday experiences—for example, crying and then being picked up or waving a toy and then hearing it rattle—provide opportunities for infants to learn about cause and effect. This knowledge helps infants better understand the properties of objects, the patterns of human behavior, and the relationship between events and the consequences.
Through developing an understanding of cause and effect, infants build their abilities to solve problems, to make predictions, and to understand the impact of their behavior on others.
Return to Top Spatial Relationships Infants learn about spatial relationships in a variety of ways; for example, exploring objects with their mouths, tracking objects and people visually, squeezing into tight spaces, fitting objects into openings, and looking at things from different perspectives Mangione, Lally, and Signer They spend much of their time exploring the physical and spatial aspects of the environment, including the characteristics of, and interrelationships between, the people, objects, and the physical space around them Clements Return to Top Problem Solving Infants exhibit a high level of interest in solving problems.
Even very young infants will work to solve a problem, for example, how to find their fingers in order to suck on them National Research Council and Institute of Medicine Older infants may solve the problem of how to reach an interesting toy that is out of reach by trying to roll toward it or by gesturing to an adult for help.
Infants and toddlers solve problems by varied means, including physically acting on objects, using learning schemes they have developed, imitating solutions found by others, using objects or other people as tools, and using trial and error.
Return to Top Imitation Imitation is broadly understood to be a powerful way to learn. It has been identified as crucial in the acquisition of cultural knowledge Rogoff and language.
Imitation by newborns has been demonstrated for adult facial expressions Meltzoff and Moorehead movements, and tongue protrusions Meltzoff and Moore Infant imitation involves perception and motor processes Meltzoff and Moore This type of interaction builds over time as the infant and the adult add elements and variations in their imitation games.Cognitive development is a part of Psychology which deals with the processes involving a child’s thinking.
It studies how children process and gain information at a particular age and how learning mechanisms change and evolve over time.
Cognitive development is a field of study in neuroscience and psychology focusing on a child's development in terms of information processing, conceptual resources, perceptual skill, language learning, and other aspects of the developed adult brain and cognitive psychology.
Qualitative differences between how a child processes its waking experience and how an adult processes his/her waking .
Cognitive development involves changes in cognitive process and abilities. In Piaget's view, early cognitive development involves processes based upon actions and later progresses to changes in .
Cognitive development refers to the development of thinking across the lifespan. Defining thinking can be problematic, because no clear boundaries separate thinking from other mental activities.
Thinking obviously involves the higher mental processes: problem solving, reasoning, creating, conceptualizing, categorizing, remembering, planning, and so on. The term cognitive development refers to the process of growth and change in intellectual/mental abilities such as thinking, reasoning and understanding.
It includes the acquisition and consolidation of knowledge. Infants draw on social-emotional, language, motor, and perceptual experiences and abilities for cognitive development.
Cognitive development is the study of childhood neurological and psychological development. Specifically, cognitive development is assessed based on the level of conception, perception, information processing, and language as an indicator of brain development.