Like Mead, Blumer used the example of the animals to illustrate that our actions are not based on automatic responses to stimuli Lastly, the meanings we give to situations are the result of the interpretive procedures we use such as taking on the role of the other
Critically assess these three theories. We have seen that social aging and views of the aging process both differ cross-culturally and over time.
A few decades ago, social gerontologists began to explain how and why the aging process in the United States and other societies occurs. These explanations, summarized in Table They fall roughly into either the functionalist, social interactionist, or conflict approaches discussed in Chapter 1 "Sociology and the Sociological Perspective".
This theory is considered a functionalist explanation of the aging process. Activity theory Older people benefit themselves and their society if they continue to be active. Their positive perceptions of the aging process are crucial for their ability to remain active.
This theory is considered an interactionist explanation of the aging process.
Conflict theory Older people experience age-based prejudice and discrimination. This theory falls into the more general conflict theory of society. One of the first explanations was called disengagement theory The view, now largely abandoned, by some past social gerontologists that a society needs to encourage its elderly to disengage from their previous roles and to take on roles more appropriate to their declining physical and mental abilities.
The process Assess the usefulness of functionalist theories disengagement. A society thus encourages its elderly to disengage from their previous roles and to take on roles more appropriate to their physical and mental decline.
In this way, a society effects a smooth transition of its elderly into a new, more sedentary lifestyle and ensures that their previous roles will be undertaken by a younger generation that is presumably more able to carry out these roles.
A critical problem with this theory was that it assumed that older people are no longer capable of adequately performing their previous roles.
As we have seen, however, older people in many societies continue to perform their previous roles quite well. In fact, society may suffer if its elderly do disengage, as it loses their insight and wisdom. It is also true that many elders cannot afford to disengage from their previous roles: A critique and proposal.
American Sociological Review, 40, — Today most social gerontologists prefer activity theory The view by social gerontologists that older people will benefit both themselves and their society if they remain active and try to continue to perform the roles they had before they aged.
Examining the effects of fashion activities on life satisfaction of older females: Family and Consumer Sciences Research Journal, 35 4— As they perform their roles, their perception of the situations they are in is crucial to their perception of their aging and thus to their self-esteem and other aspects of their psychological well-being.
One criticism of activity theory is that its appraisal of the ability of the elderly to maintain their level of activity is too optimistic: Another criticism is that activity theory is too much of an individualistic approach, as it overlooks the barriers many societies place to successful aging.
Some elders are less able to remain active because of their poverty, gender, and social class, as these and other structural conditions may adversely affect their physical and mental health.
Activity theory overlooks these conditions. Explanations of aging grounded in conflict theory put these conditions at the forefront of their analyses.
A conflict theory The view by social gerontologists that ageism and structural obstacles pose several problems for the elderly and prevent them from realizing their potential and for achieving the best physical and mental health possible.
A multidisciplinary perspective 9th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: According to this view, older workers are devalued because they are no longer economically productive and because their higher salaries because of their job seniorityhealth benefits, and other costs drive down capitalist profits.
Reflecting these inequalities in the larger society, some elders are quite wealthy, but others are very poor. One criticism of conflict theory is that it blames ageism on modern, capitalist economies.
As we have seen, negative views of the elderly also exist in preindustrial societies, even if the views there overall are often more positive than in their modern counterparts.
Activity theory assumes that older people will benefit both themselves and their society if they remain active and try to continue to perform the roles they had before they aged.Assess the usefulness of functionalist theories in understanding religion today (33 marks) There are a variety of different definitions of religion including substantive definitions, which refers to focusing on the content or substance of a religious belief such as God, functional definitions, which refers to religion in terms of the social or .
20 marks (Applying material from the item and your own knowledge of research methods, assess the usefulness of a particular research method to study a particular .
Conflict Theories of Crime. The usefulness of conflict models of criminality and the law is limited by the fact that society is not just a system of conflicting and competing interest groups.
Jun 01, · A2 Beliefs questions. Posted on June 1, 0 3 Evaluate the contribution of Marxist theories to our understanding of the role and.
OR 0 4 Assess the usefulness of functionalist theories in understanding religion today. (33 marks) Advertisements. Share this: Twitter;.
Assess the usefulness of Marxist approaches to an understanding of crime and deviance.
Durkheim was the main architect of the functionalist perspective of crime. However before you examine this perspective you will need to familiarise yourself with functionalist social theory. However before you look at that, it might be useful to refresh yourself with the AS level principles of functionalism here before moving into most complex areas of the theory.. Free Essay: Assess the usefulness of functionalist theories in understanding religion today (33 marks) There are a variety of different definitions of. • how functionalist, Marxist and feminist theories explain patterns of inequality 4 • the usefulness of key sociological theories on the use and distribution of power, must be able to assess the usefulness of the following key sociological theories.
(in connection to theory). 40 marks. Assess the usefulness of conflict theories for an understanding of crime and deviance in contemporary society. (21 marks) Specimen paper Assess the usefulness of Realist theories for an understanding of crime and deviance.