An analysis of international development agencies

Recent reports indicate that radiation traces from this device have been discovered in sediment below the mountain. Giving India unparalleled access to monitor and intercept outgoing and incoming internet traffic from China. However, four years later Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was assassinated on 15 August at his residence.

An analysis of international development agencies

Grass Savannah Although humans can do little or nothing to change the incidence or intensity of most natural phenomena, they have an important role to play in ensuring that natural events are not converted into disasters by their own actions.

It is important to understand that human intervention can increase the frequency and severity of natural hazards. For example, when the toe of a landslide is removed to make room for a settlement, the earth can move again and bury the settlement.

Human intervention may also cause natural hazards where none existed before. Volcanoes erupt periodically, but it is not until the rich soils formed on their eject are occupied by farms and human settlements that they are considered hazardous. Finally, human intervention reduces the mitigating effect of natural ecosystems.

Destruction of coral reefs, which removes the shore's first line of defense against ocean currents and storm surges, is a clear example of an intervention that diminishes the ability of an ecosystem to protect itself.

An extreme case of destructive human intervention into an ecosystem is desertification, which, by its very definition, is a human-induced "natural" hazard. All this is the key to developing effective vulnerability reduction measures: In a general sense, these tasks may be called "environmental planning"; they consist of diagnosing the needs of an area and identifying the resources available to it, then using this information to formulate an integrated development strategy composed of sectoral investment projects.

This process uses methods of systems analysis and conflict management to arrive at an equitable distribution of costs and benefits, and in doing so it links the quality of human life to environmental quality.

In the planning work, then, the environment-the structure and function of the ecosystems that surround and support human life-represents the conceptual framework. In the context of economic development, the environment is that composite of goods, services, and constraints offered by surrounding ecosystems.

An ecosystem is a coherent set of interlocking relationships between and among living things and their environments. For example, a forest is an ecosystem that offers goods, including trees that provide lumber, fuel, and fruit.

An analysis of international development agencies

The forest may also provide services in the form of water storage and flood control, wildlife habitat, nutrient storage, and recreation.

The forest, however, like any physical resource, also has its constraints. It requires a fixed period of time in which to reproduce itself, and it is vulnerable to wildfires and blights.

These vulnerabilities, or natural hazards, constrain the development potential of the forest ecosystem. Earthquakes Earthquakes are caused by the sudden release of slowly accumulated strain energy along a fault in the earth's crust, Earthquakes and volcanoes occur most commonly at the collision zone between tectonic plates.

Earthquakes represent a particularly severe threat due to the irregular time intervals between events, lack of adequate forecasting, and the hazards associated with these: Structural failure takes many human lives in densely populated areas.

Rows and lateral spreads liquefaction phenomena are among the most destructive geologic hazards. Subsidence occurs in waterlogged soils, fill, alluvium, and other materials that are prone to settle.

Volcanoes Volcanoes are perforations in the earth's crust through which molten rock and gases escape to the surface. Volcanic hazards stem from two classes of eruptions: Explosions pose a risk by scattering rock blocks, fragments, and lava at varying distances from the source.

Flows vary in nature mud, ash, lava and quantity and may originate from multiple sources. Flows are governed by gravity, surrounding topography, and material viscosity.

An analysis of international development agencies

Hazards associated with volcanic eruptions include lava flows, falling ash and projectiles, mudflows, and toxic gases. Volcanic activity may also trigger other natural hazardous events including local tsunamis, deformation of the landscape, floods when lakes are breached or when streams and rivers are dammed, and tremor-provoked landslides.

Landslides The term landslide includes slides, falls, and flows of unconsolidated materials. Landslides can be triggered by earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, soils saturated by heavy rain or groundwater rise, and river undercutting.

Earthquake shaking of saturated soils creates particularly dangerous conditions. Although landslides are highly localized, they can be particularly hazardous due to their frequency of occurrence. Classes of landslide include: These often collect at the cliff base in the form of talus slopes which may pose an additional risk.

If the displacement occurs in surface material without total deformation it is called a slump. Although associated with gentle topography, these liquefaction phenomena can travel significant distances from their origin.

The impact of these events depends on the specific nature of the landslide.2 An Analysis of the Land Policies of Selected International Development Agencies A Working Paper of the International Land Coalition1 Background. Now available: UNEG Guidance on Evaluating Institutional Gender Mainstreaming This practical guide is designed for UNEG members, policy and programme evaluators and others who advocate for a common approach to assessing progress of institutional gender mainstreaming in the United Nations system.

SUMMARY. This chapter defines natural hazards and their relationship to natural resources (they are negative resources), to environment (they are an aspect of environmental problems), and to development (they are a constraint to development and can be aggravated by it).

General Systems Analysis Links. Systems and Systems Thinking Definition of a System A system definition courtesy of the Pentagon.

This is the actual image used by Gen. Stanley A. McChrystal, the leader of American and NATO forces in Afghanistan, to portray the . This is a list of aid agencies which provide regional and international development aid or assistance, divided between national (mainly OECD countries) and international organizations.

Agencies of numerous development cooperation partners from emerging countries such as India, Middle Eastern countries, Mexico, South Africa, Thailand, Singapore, and so on, are not included.

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